Nutrition in sports. Exercise and the inflammatory response.

With physical exercise, a cascade of inflammatory events begins, which have an impact on health. During and after acute exercise in skeletal muscle, interactions between immune cells, cytokines, and other intracellular components create an inflammatory environment responsible for recovery and adaptation immediately after an exercise session. In the systemic circulation, cytokines released by muscle mediate metabolic and inflammatory processes. 

The exercise-induced proinflammatory response and subsequent recruitment of immune cells are necessary for repair and adaptation processes within skeletal muscle to exercise, but it is very important to promote repair-recovery processes. 

Proper sports nutrition has a direct impact on inflammation in our body. Fatty acids, vitamins and proteins, as well as trace elements, have been shown to exert a modulating effect on inflammation, and in the practice of exercises they play a fundamental role since, by establishing a state of inflammation with exercise, sports supplements increase the possibility of recovering and taking better care of our musculoskeletal system. Since an incomplete recovery, can cause damage that could be irreversible.

To cite an example, negative nitrogen balance can contribute to a critical illness or injury, resulting from inflammation. Therefore, an increase in protein intake relative to standard requirements estimates of healthy individuals may be necessary to promote protein synthesis, modulation of immune function, and redox status during an inflammatory response. 

A more concrete example is the consumption of proteins rich in amino acids rich in cysteine, since exercise increases the consumption of this amino acid in our body and this is a precursor of the synthesis of glutathione, taurine and hydrogen sulfide. In a state after exercise, in our body the concentrations of reactive oxygen species with high deteriorating power increase and glutathione plays an important role in cushioning these effects and therefore exert an antioxidant effect on our cells and act as a protector of our tissues, such is the case of the joints which receive high loads during physical activity where it has been very important to minimize the processes degradation and increase repair processes.